M. SCHORR, THE OUTSTANDING RABBI, ASSYRIOLOGIST AND HISTORIAN OF EASTERN EUROPEAN JEWRY
TRAGEDY OF UNCOMPLETED LIFE
Moses Schorr, Polish rabbi, one of the greatest Eastern European Bible scholars, orientalists and historians of Jewry was born on 10 th of May in 1874 in town of Przemysl in Galicia. After finishing the local gymnasium in 1893, he studied theology at the Jewish Theological Institute during 1893 - 1900 in Vienna and simultaneously he studied philosophy at the Vienna and Lwow Universities (1893 - 1898). In 1898 he was conferred the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and Medieval Studies at the Lwow University, and in 1900 he received also a rabbinical diploma in Vienna. In November of 1899 he became a lecturer in Jewish Teacher's Seminary in Lwow, as well as at the Teacher's Gymnasium in Lwow keeping it till 1923, where he also engaged in wider educational and social work.
Having received the scholarship of the Austrian Ministry of Education, Schorr left for studies to Berlin where during tow years he studied the Semitic languages, Assyriology and the history of the Ancient Orient under the guidance of famous scholars Delicz, Winkler, Bart, Sachaua, Leman-Gaupt and Schtreck. In 1905 - 1906 he enlarged his knowledges studying the Arabic philology in Vienna at the remarkable semitologist D.G. Muller.
In 1904 he was appointed* as a lecturer and in March of 1910 associate professor of Semitic languages and history of the ancient Orient at Lwow (Lemberg/Lviv) University, a chair which he later held in Warsaw.
In April of 1916 M. Schorr was conferred the degree of a merited Professor of the University in the field of Semitic languages and history of the ancient Orient, having combined this post with other certain duties at the same University till 1923. In 1912 Schorr participated in the International Congress of Orientalists in Athens, where He was assigned the functions of one of the secretaries of the semitology section and presented a lecture entitled "Sumerian and Semitic beginnings at the Ancient Babylonian law", which was published later in Paris edition of Revue Semitique. In 1918 he became the member of Oriental Committee at the Krakow Academy, and in 1920 the member of the Polish Scientific Society in Lwow, and finally one of the founders of Polish Oriental Society in Lwow, which was founded in 1923, and called him also to its work.
In 1923 he was called to Warsaw to succeed S. Poznanski as preacher at the moderately Reform Tlomacka Street synagogue, in which capacity he was also a member of the Warsaw rabbinical council. Some of his preachings were published.
He was also elected for the position of inter-regional rabbi whose main duties and functions were to represent the Jewish community in front of the State and Administrative authorities. Schorr was also appointed as a member of city and regional School Councils by the Board of Jewish community.
In 1926 Schorr becomes the professor of Warsaw University. Later on, in 1935 he was elected to the Polish parliament.
In February of 1928 Schorr together with M. Balaban, Tohn and Braud, founded the Institute of Judaic Sciences, which aimed the researches of Judaic sciences and Judaism, in particular in Biblical subjects, philosophy, religion, Talmud, sociology, semitic languages, Hebrew literature. It was located in a house (nowadays it serves for the Jewish Historiacal Institute in Poland) side by side with the Great Tlomacka Streeet Synagogue. It functioned on the strength of a state budget receiving help also from foreign Jewish institutions. The Institute retained the library which numbered over 35 thousands books, handwritings, magazines etc. Professor Schorr became the first rector of the newly created institution. He was also the member of the State Council of education of Poland and many other social institutions.
At the Warsaw University Schorr headed the Institute of Semitic languages and history of the Ancient Orient . While working at the Institute of Judaic sciences Schorr headed the department of Bible Studies and Hebrew theology, and during 1928-1930 he was its rector, and in three years, in 1933, he took this position the second time, being at this post just one year until 1934. In 1933-1934 he was elected for the member of the polish Academy of Sciences (PAU), and in 1935 as a member of the Finnish Oriental Society in Helsinki.
In 1937 Schorr received the title of a merited doctor from the Jewish Theological Seminary in new York. He was also the member of the State Council of Education of Poland and since 1924 he became the head of the State Examination Committee for Jewish teachers of religion and Judaic subjects in secondary schools, the member of the Ministerial Commission for the evaluation of the school handbooks in the field of Judaica. In 1927 he initiated the creation of the Committee for building the Jewish Library at the Great Synagogue in Warsaw and became its head (this building was finished in 1936).
Speaking about the social-educational and cultural activity of M. Schorr we should turn back for a few years and note that in 1904- 1905 he was the head of "Toynbeehali", the Society for the promotion of education among Jews in Lwow (Lemberg). At the same time he was also one of the founders and long-term members of "Opieka", a society to support the Jewish Youth of the secondary schools. During his stay in Lwow, M. Schorr became one of the founders and the first head of the "Society of the teachers of Moses' religion of the people's of the secondary schools in of Galicia" and at the same status he led the first teachers' congress in 1904 in Lwow. Since the moment of the foundation the Jewish Community Library in Lwow, he was the member of its Board and later on its head.
In 1917-1918 he headed the Jewish Rescue Committee in Lwow, and from 1916 on Schorr was also a member the central committee over the Jewish orphans in Lwow. The Society of Jewish national and secondary school, which was established at the beginning of 1919, had chosen him its first head, and in 1920 entitled him the merited member of the society.
From 1901 on, Schorr was a member of the humanitary society Bnei Brith Leopolis (Sons of the Covenant, the Jewish Mason organisation) where during a few years he led the Library and since 1921 headed the organisation in Lwow. Since the creation of the Great Loge of the XIII th district in Poland of the mentioned above society Bnei Brith, Schorr was elected as the vice president of the loge. In 1924 he was also the president of the loge Braterstwo (Brotherhood) in Warsaw. Besides of many other merits, his initiative was the creation of the loge Montefiory in Lodz, as well as the appeal of the Information Bureau of the loge Braterstwo about the situation of the Jews in Germany and other countries after 1933. Schorr was the committee, which managed the Bureau. His proper and evident goal in the activity of Bnei Brith (the organisation which reminded the Mason loges) was the unification of the national solidarity of Jews with the ideas of the universalism.
In the political life, Schorr didn't take the active part. He clearly defined his political position as for the Polish Jewish question in the questionnaire campaign arranged in February of 1919 by the Governmental Commission. In this questionnaire campaign, Schorr participated as scientific expert (the protocols of this questionnaire campaign were published in a separate book W sprawie polsko-zydowskiej. Ankieta (Concerning the Polish-Jewish question. Questionnaire).
Schorr was devoted mostly to the scientific, teaching and social activities being little active in the field of politics. In 1935 the president Ignaci Moscicki called him for a senator position to join the parliament. In his proclamations, as well as his publications in Jewish press, Schorr expressed his concern about the growth of anti-semitic actions in Poland and the passive conduct of authorities in this concern. He led the Jewish emigrational-colonial committee, which aimed to make possible the emigration of Jews to other countries than Palestine. In July of the same year, he participated in the international conference in Evian, which was dedicated to the problem of Jewish refugees from Poland.
After the beginning of the II World War, M. Schorr entered the Jewish Civil Committee and on 6th or 7th of September he left Warsaw. The Soviet intervention occurred when he was in Ostroh (little town in modern Western Ukraine, former Poland) and on 10 th of September he was arrested by the NKVD. He was kept in prisons in different towns in Western Ukraine, first in Lutsk, then in Rovno, and later on in Lwow. In the first half 1940 he was transferred to Moscow and was imprisoned in famous Lubjanka and was kept in one room with the Bund activist Viktor Alter, the poet Wladislaw Broniewski and the Polish senator of National party (Stronnictwa narodowego-SN) professor Stanislaw Glabinski (as he said: "We became so close relationships that slept together at one bench"). The attempts to liberate Schorr, which were undertaken by Polish Government in exile with the mediation of Vatikan and the U.S. State Department didn't succeed and on 17 th April of 1941 Schorr was assigned for 5 years of mandatory labour. He was taken to the V th concentration camp in Posty in Uzbekistan, where he got sick and died in a camp hospital on 8th of July, 1941 being buried at some unknown grave. Polish authorities learned about his death only on the eve of 1942, after establishing the diplomatic relations between the Polish London government and USSR's government. Polish government tried to liberate him the second time planning to appoint him as the main Rabbi of the Ander's Army, which was forming at that time but it was too late already. Schorr was awarded the Golden Cross of Merit.
Schorr was married (since 1905) with Tamara Ben Jakob, the daughter of a publisher and bibliographer Yitzkhak Ben Yakob; she died at the camp of Fittel in Frankfurt in April of 1944. He had six children with her: Sonja (died in 1961), wife of Arthur Miller, the prosecutor of the High Court in Warsaw and the head of the of the Criminal law Department at the Ministry of Justice of Poland; Deborah (died yet in Lwow in 1917); Felicia, in marriage Kon-Lipets (died in New York in 1984); Ludwig (1918-1963) the outstanding architect who settled in Tel Aviv; Esther, in marriage Ben-Kohav (died in Jerusalem in 1991), and also Joshua (Otton), engineer in Jerusalem.
There are streets named after his name in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Holon.
There was also a scientific meeting devoted to M.Schorr and in 1993 the similar meeting took place at the Polish Academy of Sciences in Krakow.
SCHORR AS ONE OF THE MAJOR HISTORIANS OF POLISH JEWRY
The scientific heritage of M.Schorr is undoubtedly large and worth of attention. In the next part of this chapter the main focus will be on his scientific legacy and main works starting from his first articles till the last written works. The special attention will be paid to his unknown publications which appeared at the Jewish newspaper Chwila (means "wave" in Polish), which was published in Polish in Lwow during the inter war period.
Two main trends can be defined in his works. The first stream of his scientific activity deals with the history of Polish Jews. Schorr started his early scientific work in this field yet as a auditor of Vienna University in 1987, writing his first serious work entitled Zur Geschichte des Don Josef Nasi (Concerning the history of Don Joseph Nasi), which was published in Monatschrift fur die Wiessenschaft des Judenstum. In this work, the author analyses the relations of Joseph Nasi with a king Zygmont August in the light of the situation of Jews in Poland at that time.
The doctor dissertation of M.Schorr entitled "The Organisation of Jews in Poland" first appeared in Lwow at the Lwow magazine Kwartalnik historyczny in 1899, and later on was also translated into Russian at the Russian scientific monthly "Woschod". In 1903 Schorr was awarded the prize of Wawelberg (the famous Polish-Russian banker and philantropist) for his work Zydzi w Przemyslu do roku 1772 (Jews in Przemysl till 1772) . The first mentioned above work, the doctor dissertation Organizacya Zydow w Polsce (Organisation of Jews in Poland) is a serious attempt to summarise the data about the kahal organisation of the central institutions of Jewish self-administration Vaads and the workshops of Jewish craftsmen. Another work, the monograph about the Jews in Przemysl, is precious not only for its concise examination of the history of this remarkable community but also for the numerous documents which are added in the end of the book (the detailed review of this book is in "Jevrejskaja Starina" magazine published in 1909, no. 1) Schorr published also "The Krakow code of Jewish laws and privileges in Poland", having written in addition the article about its significance and contradictory questions regarding the main privileges.
Shorr is also the author of a large article about the Hebrew language in Encyklopedya Polska (Polish Encyclopeadia, vol. III, 1915). One of his last works in the field of Jewish history in Poland, is a research Rechtsstellung und innere Verfassung der Juden in Polen (The legal situation and internal organisation of Jews in Poland) published in German which was published in Berlin and Vienna in 1917.
M. SCHORR AS ORIENTALIST AND BIBLE SCHOLAR
The second major stream of Schorr's scientific activity concerns primarily the Bible Studies (in particular the researches of Biblical Law), assyriology and the history of the Ancient Orient in general. Starting from 1904 onwards all of Schorr's works are primarily focused on this subjects.
One of his first works in this field was the investigation Starozytnosci biblijne w swietle archiwum egipskiego (Biblical antiquities in the light of the Egyptian archive). It was published in magazine "Przewodnik naukowy i literacki" in 1901 and was published separately as well. In 1903 Schorr writes large comments on respected and famous book Babel und Bibel (Babylon and Bible). This commentary is named Kultura Babilonska a starohebrajska (Babylonian and Hebrew culture) which appeared firs time in Kwartalnik historyczny, and later on as a separate edition.
As it was noted before, some of Schorr's works were written in and published in German. One of such works is the investigation Die Kohler-Peisersche Hammurabi Ubersetzung" (The Hammurabi Code translation of Peiser-Kohler), where the author gives detailed analyses of this translation.
Schorr was also dedicated to the study of Babylonian history. His main work on this subject is Panstwo i spoleczenstwo babilonske w kresie t.zw. dynastyi Hammurabiego (The Babylonian state and society at the time of Hammurabi dynasty) which first appeared as a separate edition in 1906 in Lwow and afterwards was published also in Kwartalnik historyczny Another highly respected work of the scholar in this field is Eine Babylonische Seisachtie aus dem Anfang der Kassitenzeit, ende XVIII vorchristl. Jahrhunderts (The Babylonian Seisachtie of the times of the Kassites' dynasty, the end of 18 th century B.C.) In this research Schorr discusses and presents one of the newly discovered old Babylonian texts, which were published and investigated by Oxford assyriologist Langdon.
He also made serious researches on the history of the social and commercial life of the Ancient Orient and in particular the trade movement in the ancient Babylon. The work's title is Ruch handlowy w Satorozytnej Babilonii (The trade movement in the old Babylon). It was published in 1911 in a commemorative book while celebrating 25th anniversary of the establishment of Lwow University.
Schorr had also translated and systematised the old Babylonian legal documents, having written large commentary in addition to it. This serious work entitled Altbabylonische Rechtsurkunden aus der Zeit der I -ste Babylonische Dynastie (Old Babylonian legal documents of the times of the I -st Babylonian dynasty).
The legal issues and the law history were of the main subject of Schorr's researches. That's not surprising since the scholar was a rabbi himself. He did lots of researches in the comparative studies of the law history of the Ancient Orient and in particular trying to make the parallels between the Biblical law and other legal systems of that time. Among them: Kodeks Hammurabiego a owczesna praktyka prawna (Hammurabi Code and the ancient oriental legal practices) which first appeared in Rozprawy of the history-philosophy department of the Krakow Academy of Sciences and in 1907 was published separately .
The biggest achievement of the scholar in the field of Oriental studies is considered the work Urkunden des altbabylonische Zivil- und Prozessrechts (The documents of the Old Babylonian civil and criminal law). This is the edition of sources with large comments of the author.
SCHORR'S UKNOWN PUBLICATIONS IN NEWSPAPER "CHWILA"
For a long time Schorr actively cooperated with the leading Jewish newspaper of Poland Chwila , which was published in Lwow during the inter-war period. In his numerous publications he popularised his old and initiated the new themes and ideas. Those articles in their larger part, were neither examined in the historiography of these problems, nor included in his bibliography.
Discovering and systematising of his unknown publications in Jewish newspaper Chwila, and carrying out a critical historiographical analysis of them are my scholarly goal and interest. After the first review of the set of newspapers for 1918-1939, which is preserved only in the Scientific Library of Lviv [Lwow] University, there are more than ten articles of Schorr. The most important among them are: Palestyna a Babylon w swietle najnowszych wykopalisk (Palestine and Babylon in the light of recent archaeological excavations, 1923); Samuel Hirsch Margulies (1922), which is dedicated to the outstanding personality of the Italian Jewry , outcomer from Galicia Samuel Hirsch Margulies (1858-1922), who became later the leader of Italian Jewry. This publication is commemorated to the scholar due to his death in the same year. As nekrolog to this article, Schorr writes:
"Italian Jewry undergone a big loss in the death of the Rabbi of Florence and rector of local rabbinical seminary Dr. Samuel Hirsch Margulies (died on 12 th of march), who had been the Rabbi for more that three decades leaving a strong footprint on a life and culture of the Jews of whole Italy. Margulies was of Polish [Galician] origin, being born in Brzezany [current Berezhany] in 1858 receiving a versatile Biblical-Talmudic education at home and after finishing the gimnasium devoted himself to the study of theology in Wroclaw (1881-1885). In 1890 he was called for the position of the Rabbi of Florence, where managed to became the leader of whole Italian Jewry. He became the spiritual leader in all the spheres of the civic life, on account of his deep Judaic knowledge, organisational abilities and personal favourite pursuits in the subjects of spirit and heart. Thanks to him the indefferential religious life of Italian Jews started to be a live artery filled with strong native Jewish traditions and culture. He also initiated the centralized unification of all Jewsih communities which created a new Collegio rabbinico italiano (instead of old renown institution in Padova under the guidence of S.D. Luccatta) in Florence, assigning him the administration and caring over it. This seminary (where studied the Viennese Rabbi Prof. Chajes) produced an array of young Rabbis, who started the spiritual Renessaince of Italian Jewry"
Schorr's interest in spiritual subjects and religious life was his distinct trait and attribute for he himself was the main Rabbi of Warsaw and the first rector of the Institute of Jewish Sciences (Rabbinical seminary) there, deeply sympathising the personality of S. Hirsch Margulies so similar to his own.
His largest publication in Chwila is Prawo Mojzesza na tle porownawczem prawodawstw Starozytnego Wschodu (The Moses' law in the comparative perspective with the laws of the Ancient Orient). This is the large series of articles where Schorr continues and develops his old scientific subjects comparing the Biblical Law with Babylonian law in the first section of the publication, following the comparison with the Assyrian and Hettite legislatures in the second and third sections. Here Schorr is also referring to his previous work about the Hettites Problem Chettow (The Hettites' problem), published seven years before in Kwartalnik historyczny.
Furthermore, I will mention a few others newly discovered publications of Schorr. Some of them deals with the history of the Polish Jewry as Kwestya zydowska w dobie Sejmu Wiekiego (The Jewish question at the time of the Great Sejm) Some are of the philosophical content like Radosna Chwila (The joyful moment) and Pesach Micarim - Pesach le Atid. The last one is the series of articles of the historical-philosophical character, where the author talk about the Haggadah and escape of Jews from Egypt in the light of this legendary collection of the legends and tales of the Jewish people. He starts it with the words from Mishna (Pesach X.5) : "In every generation and age man must be considered as a member of the Escape from Egypt"... "The sublime flash in the mind of deep historiosopher, who as intuitively grasped the greatness of this episode on the eve of Israel's history..." continued by the author. Summarising the biography and the scientific legacy of Schorr we may surely talk about him as about the outstanding personality and famous historian, the person of wide outlook and versatile interests, whose scientific heritage is deserving the most serious attention and study.
Prof. Dr. M.Schorr na nowej placowce pracy (Prof. Dr. M.Schorr at a new place of work) Chwila, 18 November 1923, p.4;
Prof. Dr. M. Schorr na nowej placowce pracy (Prof. Dr. M.Schorr at a new place of work). Chwila, 18 November, 1923;
J.Tomaszewski. Najnowsze dzieje zydow w Polsce w zarysie do 1950 roku (Contemporary History of Jews in Poland till 1950) Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PAN, 1993, pp. 252-253;
Almanach szkolnictwa zydowskiego w Polsce (Almanac of Jewish scholarship in Poland), Warsaw: Wyd. Renesans, 1938, p. 104;
Polski Slownik Biograficzny (Polish Biographical Directory). Vol. 25/4. Warsaw: PAN, 1994, p. 603;
Ibid.: p. 603;
Prof. Dr. M.Schorr na nowej placowce pracy (Prof. Dr. M.Schorr at a new place of work). Chwila, November 18, 1923, p. 4;
Polski Slownik Biograficzny..., p. 603;
Ibid.: p. 603;
Prof Dr. M.Schorr na nowej placowce pracy...
Polski Slownik Biograficzny...p. 603.
M.Schorr. Zur Geschichte der Don Josef Nasi (Concerning the history of Don Joseph Nasi) Monatschrift fur die Wiesenschaft des Judenstums, Vienna, 1897;
Prof. Dr. M.Schorr at a new place of work...
Jevrejskaja Entsiklopedija (The Jewish Encyclopeadia), St Petersburg: The Publishing house for scientific Jewish publications and The Edition of Brockhaus and Efron, 1913, p. 71;
Prof. Schorr na nowej placowce pracy...
M.Schorr. Die Kohler-Peisersche Hammurabi Ubersetzung (Hammurabi Code translation of Kohler-Peisersche) Wien, 1907;
M.Schorr. Panstwo i spoleczenstwo babilonske w okresie t. zw. dynastyi Hammurabiego (The Babylonian state and society at the time of Hammurabi dynasty) Lwow, 1906;
M.Schorr. Ruch handlowy w Starozytnej Babilonii (The trade movement in the Ancien Babylon) in "Ksiega pamiatkowa ku uczczeniu zalozenia Uniw. Lwowskiego", Lwow, 1911;
M.Schorr. Kodeks Hammurabiego a owczesna praktyka prawna (Hammurabi Code and the legal practices of the Ancient Orient) Krakow, 1907;
M.Schorr. Urkunden des albabylonischen Zivil- und Prozessrechts (Documents of Old Babylonian civil and crimianal law) Leipzig: Vor der Asiatischen Bibliothek, 1913;
M.Schorr. Samuel Hirsch Margulies (1858-1922), Chwila, 13 May 1922, p. 3;
M.Schorr. Prawo Mojzesza na tle porownawczem prawodawstw Starozytnego Wschodu (Moses' law in the comparative perespective with the laws of the Ancient Orient) Chwila, 3-7, 13, 17, 19-22, 24-29 November 1923;
M.Schorr. Problem Chettow (Hettites' problem) in Kwartalnik historyczny, 1916;
M.Schorr.Kwestya zydowska w dobie Sejmu Wielkiego (The Jewish question at the time of Great Sejm) Chwila, 13-14 July 1920;
M.Schorr. Radosna Chwila (The joyful moment), Chwila, 9 November 1923;
M.Schorr. Pesach Micraim - Pesach le -atid. Haggadah do uzytku Chwili (Haggadah for the use of Chwila) Chwila, 14 , 15, 17 April 1922;
Almanach szkolnictwa zydowskiego w Polsce...p. 542;
Ibid.: p. 543;
Jevrejskaja entsiklopedija...Vol. 1, p. 414
Almanach szkolnictwa zydowskiego w Polsce...Vol. 1, p. 543;
Ibid. p. 544;
Ibid. p. 544;
The Encyclopaedia Judaica...p. 126;
Almanach szkolnictwa zydowskiego w Polsce...p. 545;
Yevretskaya entsiklopediya...Vol. 3, p. 703;
Ibid.: p. 549;
J.Tomaszewski. Najnowsze dzieje zydow w Polsce w zarysie do 1950 roku (Contemporary history of Jews in Poland outlined till 1950) Warsaw: PWN, 1993, pp. 252-253;
J.Tomaszewski. Najnowsze dzieje zydow w Polsce w zarysie do 1950 roku (Contemporary history of Jews in Poland outlined till 1950) Warsaw: PWN, 1993, p. 253;
J. Marcus. Social and Political History of the Jews in Poland, 1919-1939. Berlin: Mouton Publishers, 1983, p. 429;
Polski Slownik Biograficzny...p. 603;
Yevreyskaya entsiklopediya...Vol. 3, p. 703;
M.Balaban. Zalmaw, burmistrz kahalu w Drohobyczu w pol. XVII w. (Zalmaw, Jewish community mayor of Drohobych) Dziennik Polski, January 1900;
Encyclopeadia Judaica...p. 126;
Ibid.: p. 550;
J. Marcus. Social and Political History of the Jews in Poland, 1919-1939. Berlin: Mouton Publishers, 1983, p. 262;
Yevreyskaya entsiklopediya (Jewish Encyclopeadia). Jerusalem, 1988, Vol. 1, p. 77;
M.Balaban. Smutna rocznica (Sad anniverssary) Chwila, 30 April 1920;
M.Balaban. Smutna rocznica (Sad anniverssary) Chwila, 30 April 1920, pp. 3-4;
M.Balaban. Dr Emanuel de Jona, lekarz nadworny Jana Trzecigo (Dr Emanuel de Jona, the court physician of Jan III) Chwila, 4 March 1920, pp. 4-6;
M.Balaban. Drukarnie hebrajskie w Zolkwie i Lwowie (Jewish Printing Shops in Zolkwa and Lwow) Chwila, 11 April 1920, pp. 5-9;
M.Balaban. Becal, celnik ziem ruskich (Becal, Celnik of Rus lands) Chwila, 4 May 1920, p.3;
1.Balaban, M. Historja i literatura zydowska ze szczegolnem uwzglednieniem historji zydow w Polsce (Jewish history and culture with the detailed review of the history of Jews in Poland). Lwow-Krakow, 1921.
2.Balaban, M. Przewodnik po zydowskich zabytkach Krakowa z 13 rycinami z 24 rytograwjurami na oddzielnych tablicach z 2 planami (Guide on Jewish places and monuments of Krakow). Krakow: KAW, 1990.
3.Balaban, M. Smutna rocznica (Sorrowful annivessary), Chwila, 30 July 1920.
4.Balaban, M. Dr. Emanuel de Jona, lekarz nadworny Jana Trzecigo (Dr. Emanuel de Jona, court physician of John the 3 rd), Chwila, 4 March 1920.
5.Balaban, M. Z wczorajszego Lwowa (From the past of Lwow), Chwila, July - December 1925.
6.Balaban, M. Chassidica. Przeglad literatury o chasydyzmie z lat ostatnich (Hassidica. Review of recent literature about the Hassidism). Chwila, 7--9, 11, 12, 14, 16-19 July, 1932.
7.Balaban, M. Budowa i ornamentyka synagog w Polsce (Structure and ornamentation of synagogues in Poland), Chwila, 30 December 1925.
8.Balaban, M. Do dziejow Ormian lwowskich. Traktat o asymilacyi (Concernig the history of Armenians in Lwow. Treatise about the assimilation), Chwila 14 January, 1921.
9.Balaban, M. Napoleon a Zydzi (Napoleon and the Jews), Chwila, 30 December 1925.
10.Balaban, M. Zydzi polsko-litewski w pierwszym roku wojny europejskiej 1914-1915. Przeglad bibliograficzny (Polish Lithuanian Jews in the first year of European War 1914-1915. Bibliographical review). Chwila, August - September 1922.
11.Balaban, M. Auto da Fe w Lwowie w r. 1728 (Auto da Fe in Lviv in 1728).
Chwila, 14 January 1921.
12.Balaban, M. Drukarnie hebrajskie w Zolkwie i Lwowie (Hebrew printing shops in Zovkva and Lviv). Chwila, 11 April 1920.
13.Balaban, M. Nauka Zydowska w Golusie i jej dom w Ojczyznie (Jewish Science in the Dispersion and its House in Motherland) Chwila, 2 April 1925, pp. 9-11.
14.Balaban, M. Zydowska biblioteka gminna we Lwowie. Wspomnienie (Jewish Communla Library in Lviv) Chwila, 7 January 1922, p.2.
15.Balaban, M. Chassidica, przeglad literatury o chasydyzmie z lat ostatnich (Chassidica, the review of the literature on Chassidism from the last years) Chwila, August-September 1922.
16.Balaban, M. Korespondencja Lublinera z Lewelem (Correspondence of Lubliner with Lewel) Miesiecznik Zydowski, no. 4, 1933, pp. 289-321.
17.Balaban, M. Zalmaw, burmistrz kahalu w Drohobyczu w pol. XVII w. (Zalmaw, Jewish community mayor of drohobych) Dziennik Polski, January 1900.
18.Prof Dr. M. Schorr na nowej placowce pracy (Prof. Dr. M. Schorr at the new place of work). Chwila, 18 November, 1923.
19.Schorr, M. Kwestya zydowska w dobie Sejmu Wielkiego, (Jewish question at the time of the Great Seim). Chwila, 13-24 July, 1920.
20.Schorr, M. Palestyna a Babylon w swietlie najnowszych wtkopalisk, (Palestine and Babylon in the light of new archeological excavations,) Chwila, 27, 28, 30 January1922; 1-6 February 1922.
21.Schorr, M. Prawo Mojzesza na tle porownawczem prawodawstw Starozytnego Wschodu (Moses' Law in comparaative perspective with the legislatures of the Ancient Middle East,) Chwila, 3-7, 13, 17, 19-22, 24-29 November 1923.
22.Schorr, M. Radosna Chwila (Joyful moment,) Chwila, 9 December 1923;
23.Schorr, M. Samuel Hirsch Margulies, 1858-1922, (Samuel Hirsch Margulies, 1858-1922). Chwila, 13 May 1922.
24.Schorr, M. Archiwum zydowskiej kolonii wojskowej w Egipcie z V w. (Archiwe of Jewish military colony in Egypt of 5 th century). Lwow, 1912.
25.Schorr, M. Aus der Geschichte der Juden in Przemysl (History of Jews in Przemysl). Vienna: Verlag von R. Lovit, 1915, 28 p.
26. Schorr, M. Pomik prawa staroassyryjskiego z XII w. przed Chr. (Memorial of Old Assyrian Law of 12 th century B.C.). Lwow: Archiwum Towarystwa Naukowego we Lwowie, 1922.
27.Schorr, M. Problem Chettytow z powodu najnowszego odkrycia lingwistyczno-historycznego (Problem of Hettites due to the newest lingustic-historical discovery).
Kwartalnik Historyczny, Lwow, 1916.
28.Schorr, M. Przyczynki do frazeologii psalmow biblijnych a babilonskich
( Articles concernig Biblical nad Babylonian Psalms), Rocznik oryentalistyczny, Krakow, 1914 -1915.
29.Schorr, M. Jezyk hebrajski w Polsce (Hebrew language in Poland), Encycopedya polska (Polish encyclopaedia), Vol. 3 (1915).
30.Schorr, M. Kultura babilonska a starohebrajska (Babilonian and Hebrew culture). Lwow, 1903, 28 p.
31.Schorr, M. Panstwo i spoleczenstwo babilonske w okresie t. zw. dynastyi Hamurabiego okolo 2500 - 2000 pr. Chr. (Babylonian state and society in times of Hammurabi dynasty of 2500 - 2000 B.C.). Lwow: Drukarnia Ludowa, 1906.
32.Schorr, M. Organizacya Zydow w Polsce od najdawniejszych czasow do r. 1772
(Organisation of Jews in Poland since the earliest times till 1772). Kwartalnik Historyczny, 1899.
33.Schorr M. Kazanie inagauracyjne wygloszone w wiekiej synagodze na Tlomackiem dn. 7. 12. 1923. (Inaugurative message presented at the Great Tlomacki Synagogue on 2.12.1923). Warsaw: Druk. Kupenztocha i Kramaria, 1923, 28 p.
34.Schorr M. Kodeks Hamurabiego a owczesnaa praktyka prawna (Hammurabi Code and the ancient Middle Eastern legal practice). Krakow, 1907;
35.Schorr, M. Wazniejsze kwestyi z historyi semickiego Wschodu (The Important Issues on the History of the Semitic Orient) Lwow: Druk. Zwiazkowa, 1907, 60 p.
36.Schorr, M. Starozytnosci biblijne w swietlie archiwum egipskiego z XIV w. przed Chrystusem (Biblical Antiquities in the Light of Egyptian Archive of 17th cen. B.C.) Lwow: Druk. Zwiazkowa, 1901, 34 p.
37.To live with honour and die with honor. Selected Documents from the Warsaw Ghetto Underground Archives "O. S.' ["Oneg Shabbath"] Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1986.
38.Almanach szkolnictwa zydowskiego w Polsce (Almanac of Jewish scholarship in Poland). Warsaw: Wyd. Renesans, 1988, Vol. 1.
39.Albright, William Foxwell. Archeologia Palestyny (Archeology of Palestine). Warsaw: PWN, 1964.
40.Balaban, M. Prace naukowe Prof. Mojzesza Schorra," (Scientific Works of Prof. M. Schorr) In Ksiega Jubileuszowa ku czci prof. Mojzesza Schorra (Anniversary book in memory of Prof. M. Schorr). Warsaw, 1935.
41.Balaban, M. Wazniejsze prace naukowe prof. Mojzesza Schorra (Major scientific works of Prof. M. Schorr) In M. Schorr: Kazanie inaugaracyjne w Wielkiej Synagodze na Tlomackiem...dn. 7 grudnia 1923 (M.Schorr: Inaugurative presentation at the Great Tlomacki Synagogue on Dec. 7th, 1923). Warsaw, 1924.
42.Bilderman, M. Majer Balaban, Historian of Polish Jewry: His Influence on the Younger Generation of Jewish Historians, New York: Methuen, 1976.
43.Eisenbach, A. Jewish Historiography in Interwar Poland in "The Jews of Poland Between Two World Wars" Hanover: University Press of New England, 1991.
44.Kaufman, I. Biblejskaja epokha (Biblical Epoch) in Jevreiskaja istorija i religija (Jewish history and religion). Jerusalem: Lib. Aliya, 1990;
45.Kratkaja Jevrejskaja Entsiklopedija (Short Jewish Encyclopeadia). Vol. 4. Jerusalem, 1988.
46.Marcus, J. Social and Political History of the Jews in Poland 1919-1939. New York: Mouton publishers, 1983.
47.Ostersetzer, Israel. Prof. Mojzesz Schorr: W 60-lecie urodzin (Prof. M. Schorr: on the occasion of the 60th jubilee of his birthday) Miesiecznik Zydowski, 1934.
48.Polski Slownik Biograficzny (Polish Biographical Directory).Vol. 25/4. Warsaw: PAN, 1994.
49.Schulkin M. Prof. Majer Balaban: w stolecie urodzin (Prof. M. Balaban: on the occasion of his centennial anniversary) BZIN, 1977.
50.Tomaszewski, J. Najnowsze dzieje zydow w Polsce w zarysie do roku 1950 (Contemporary history of Jews in Poland outlined till 1950) Warsaw: PWN, 1993.
51.Trunk, I. Majer Balaban: den forsher fun der koolsher organizatye un oytomye in amolikn Poyln (Meir Balaban: the researcher of the Jewish self-administration system in Poland) in Yivo bletter, 1973.